[218] However, only select 275 couplets have been taught to the schoolchildren from Standards III to XII. [19][a] Certain epithets for God and ascetic values found in the text are found in Jainism, states Zvelebil. 9:30 am to 12:30 pm. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 5th century CE. Results 0067 from youtube at www.herofastermp3.com. Discover new artists and listen to full albums from your favorite bands. Professor Sl.No. [50][e] His mentioning of God Vishnu in couplets 610 and 1103 and Goddess Lakshmi in couplets 167, 408, 519, 565, 568, 616, and 617 suggests the Vaishnavite beliefs of Valluvar. Uyar Valluvam - Class 42. [66] This, Zvelebil states, is the higher pattern in the Kural text, and finally, in relation to the entire work, they acquire perfection in the totality of their structure. [11][97][98], According to Kaushik Roy, the Kural text in substance is a classic on realism and pragmatism, and it is not a mystic, purely philosophical document. 6:00 PM to 8:30 PM. [159], Parimelalhagar's commentary on the Thirukkural was published for the first time in 1840 and became the most widely published commentary ever since. ", "The sceptre of the king is the firm support of the Vedas of the Brahmin, and of all virtues therein described. The Greatness of Those Who Have Renounced (, Chapter 4. [23] Zvelebil notes that the text features several grammatical innovations that are absent in the older Sangam literature. 6-3-2007 Place & Date India Palakalaikazhaga Thamizhasiriyar Manram, Madurai May 2007 Kalaignar Uyar Thamizh Maiyam, Bharathidasan University, Trichy Place & Date Stella MarysCollege, Chennai Feb 2007. [214][215] Kural couplets and thoughts are cited in 32 instances in the Purananuru, 35 in Purapporul Venba Maalai, 1 each in Pathittrupatthu and the Ten Idylls, 13 in the Silappathikaram, 91 in the Manimekalai, 20 in Jivaka Chinthamani, 12 in Villi Bharatham, 7 in Thiruvilaiyadal Puranam, and 4 in Kanda Puranam. Several modern commentaries started appearing in the 19th and 20th centuries. "[1] The term tiru has as many as 19 different meanings. Karka.in. By 1975, its translations in at least 20 major languages had been published:[134], The text was likely translated into Indian languages by Indian scholars over the centuries, but the palm leaf manuscripts of such translations have been rare. [169] Similarly, the love story Perunkatai (lit. [156] In 1917, Manakkudavar's commentary for the first book of the Kural text was published by V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. [41] There are also accounts claiming that, during his return journey, Valluvar sat under a tree whose shadow sat still over him and did not move the entire day, he killed a demon, and many more. It is one of the 27 wells dug on the orders of Ellis in 1818, when Madras suffered a severe drinking water shortage. Ways of Accumulating Wealth (, Chapter 88. [201] The sthala vriksham (holy tree of the temple) at the temple is the oil-nut or iluppai tree under which Valluvar is believed to have been born. The works of Dharumar, Dhaamatthar, and Nacchar are only partially available. [95] In the words of Gopalkrishna Gandhi, Valluvar maintains his views on personal morality even in the Book of Love, where one can normally expect greater poetic leniency, by describing the hero as "a one-woman man" without concubines. [163], Since the 1970s, the Kural text has been transliterated into ancient Tamil scripts such as the Tamil-Brahmi script, Pallava script, Vatteluttu script and others by Gift Siromoney of the International Institute of Tamil Studies (IITS, Madras Christian College). "[94] The Kural differs from every other work on morality in that it follows ethics, surprisingly a divine one, even in its Book of Love. [8] According to Kamil Zvelebil, a Czech scholar of Tamil literature, these early dates such as 300 BCE to 1 BCE are unacceptable and not supported by evidence within the text. [9] The work is traditionally grouped under the Eighteen Lesser Texts series of the late Sangam works, known in Tamil as Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku. [213] In Kamba Ramayanam, poet Kambar has used Kural thoughts in as many as 600 instances. [187] In January 2016, Chitravina N. Ravikiran set the entire 1330 verses to music in a record time of 16 hours. Mayuram Vishwanatha Shastri set all the verses to music in the early 20th century. Free Download தம ழ த த ய வ ழ த த Tamil Thaai Vazhthu Thamizh Thaai Vaazhthu தம ழ த த ய வ ழ த த ப டல MP3, Size: 1.67 MB, Duration: 1 minute and 16 seconds, Bitrate: 192 Kbps. - Production team … Saint Valluvar). Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. In regard to the virtues one should follow dearly even at the expense of other virtues, Valluvar points to veracity (Kural 297), not coveting another's wife (Kural 150), and not being called a slanderer (Kural 181). [44], e. ^ Quote: "Non-killing is an absolute virtue (aram) in the Arattuppal (the glory of virtue section), but the army's duty is to kill in battle and the king has to execute a number of criminals in the process of justice. [1] While the text extols the virtue of non-violence, it also dedicates many of 700 poruḷ couplets to various aspects of statecraft and warfare in a manner similar to the Hindu text Arthasastra. [42], The Kural text is aphoristic and non-denominational in nature and can be selectively interpreted in many ways. In Valluvar's theory of state, unlike Kautilya, the army (patai) is the most important element. Watch their music videos complete with lyrics, song meanings and biographies. "The Collection of Short [Poems]") and many lines in Narrinai (lit. (15 May 1995). Jain, Hindu and Buddhist scriptures). The train running a distance of 2,921 kilometers between Kanyakumari and New Delhi is named by the Indian Railways as the Thirukural Express. Of these at least 277 scholars have written commentaries for the entire work. For example, Parimelalhagar cogently explains the ethical connections between couplets 380 and 620, 481 and 1028, 373 and 396, and 383 and 672. The text recommends a hierarchical military organization staffed with fearless soldiers who are willing to die in war. A few of these relied on re-translating the earlier English translations of the work. [13][14][15] It also includes chapters on friendship, love, sexual union, and domestic life. [85][86] Of the three books of the Kural literature, the second one on politics and kingdom (poruḷ) is about twice the size of the first, and three times that of the third. [23][24], In 1959, S. Vaiyapuri Pillai assigned the work to around or after the 6th century CE. "[180] According to K. M. Munshi, "Thirukkural is a treatise par excellence on the art of living. 2. [24][b] Pillai published a list of 137 Sanskrit loan words in the Kural text. [8][29][30] On 18 January 1935, the Valluvar Year was added to the calendar. This Buddhist epic ridicules Jainism while embedding morals and ideals similar to those in the Kural. Tamil Wing,A.U. [61] According to Sharma, dharma (aṟam) refers to ethical values for the holistic pursuit of life, artha (poruḷ) refers to wealth obtained in ethical manner guided by dharma, and kāma (Inbam) refers to pleasure and fulfilment of one's desires, also guided by dharma. This has led almost every major religious group in India, including Christianity, to claim the work and its author as one of their own. [66] In terms of structural flow, the text journeys the reader from "the imperfect, incomplete" state of man implicit in the early chapters to the "physically, morally, intellectually and emotionally perfect" state of man living as a husband and citizen, states Zvelebil. If you like the kind of work we are doing and want to be a part of it, please reach out to us. Ilangai Jeyaraj, an admirable speaker who has been instrumental in shaping my ideas on Aram and its importance in life. [9] In a manner similar to speculations of the author's biography, there has been much speculation about his religion with no historical evidence. [118], The Kural is one of the most reviewed of all works in Tamil literature, and almost every notable scholar has written exegesis or commentaries (explanation in prose or verse), known in Tamil as urai, on it. ^ For examples of Sanskrit loan words, see Zvelebil's The Smile of Murugan. [66] In isolation, a couplet is "a perfect form, possessing, in varying degree, the prosodic and rhetoric qualities of gnomic poetry. [11][a] In addition, it highlights truthfulness, self-restraint, gratitude, hospitality, kindness, goodness of wife, duty, giving, and so forth,[12] besides covering a wide range of social and political topics such as king, ministers, taxes, justice, forts, war, greatness of army and soldier's honor, death sentence for the wicked, agriculture, education, abstinence from alcohol and intoxicants. "[180], Jesuit, Catholic and Protestant missionaries in colonial-era South India have highly praised the text, many of whom went on to translate the text into European languages. Similar to Valluvar, Confucius advocated legal justice embracing human principles, courtesy, and filial piety, besides the virtues of benevolence, righteousness, loyalty and trustworthiness as foundations of life. [33] However, the Tiruvalluva Maalai does not mention anything about Valluvar's birth, family, caste or background. While in Chapter 93 Valluvar writes on the evils of intoxication. [186][188], The Kural is part of Tamil people's everyday life and is used in all walks of life. Karka Kasadara Trust -karka dot in 49,876 views 2:42:31 [174], Scholars compare the teachings in the Tirukkural with those in other ancient thoughts such as the Confucian sayings in Lun Yu, Hitopadesa, Panchatantra, Manusmriti, Tirumandiram, Book of Proverbs in the Bible, sayings of the Buddha in Dhammapada, and the ethical works of Persian origin such as Gulistan and Bustan, in addition to the holy books of various religions. Jayaraman. The Kural was the first book to be published in Tamil,[153] followed by the Naladiyar. Even today many scholars wonder how was it possible for Acharya to write so much in a very short life span of 32 years. Uyar Valluvam - Class 42 . A more scholarly version of this commentary was published by Krisnamachariyar in 1965. [180] The Anglican missionary John Lazarus said, "No Tamil work can ever approach the purity of the Kural. The text also features a higher number of Sanskrit loan words compared with these older texts. 018 Uyar Valluvam Thirukkural- வாழ்க்கைத் துணைநலம்-2 மக்கட்பேறு-1 (ValkaiThunaiNalam-2 Makkatperu-1) by Karka Kasadara Uyar Valluvam 2:13:39 Mobile: +91 9445543442; Email: trust@karka.in; Register Now; The depths of first kural. [65] Neither is the Kural an anthology nor is there any later additions to the text. Throughout the work, Valluvar is more considerate about the substance than the linguistic appeal of his writing. [220] On 26 April 2016, the Madras High Court directed the state government to include all the 108 chapters of the Books of Aram and Porul of the Kural text in school syllabus for classes VI through XII from the academic year 2017–2018 "to build a nation with moral values. Beschi means thus 'those who swim the vast sea of miseries'. Uyar Valluvam - Class 43. [185], k. ^ A stone inscription found on the walls of a well at the Periya Palayathamman temple at Royapettai indicates Ellis' regard for Valluvar. [142], The translations of the Kural in Southeast Asian and East Asian languages were published in the 20th century. [7] Its authorship is traditionally attributed to Valluvar, also known in full as Thiruvalluvar. Firstly, unlike Confucius, Valluvar was also a poet. A good and strong kingdom must be protected with forts made of thick, high and impenetrable walls. [203], Additional Valluvar shrines in South India are found at Tiruchuli,[204] Periya Kalayamputhur, Thondi, Kanjoor Thattanpady, Senapathy, and Vilvarani. According to K. Mohanraj, as of 2013, there were at least 497 Tamil language commentaries written by 382 scholars beginning with Manakkudavar from the Medieval era. His proposal is based on the evidence that the Kural text contains a large proportion of Sanskrit loan words, shows awareness and indebtedness to some Sanskrit texts best dated to the first half of the 1st millennium CE, and the grammatical innovations in the language of the Kural literature. [26] According to Zvelebil, besides being part of the ancient Tamil literary tradition, the author was also a part of the "one great Indian ethical, didactic tradition" as a few of the verses in the Kural text are "undoubtedly" translations of the verses of earlier Indian texts. Uyar Valluvam - Class 41. Listen to Dhandapani Desikar explaining how he tuned this song in Desh, and so many tamil songs. [120] According to Aravindan, these texts may be considered as the early commentaries to the Kural text. f. ^ The couplets are generally numbered in a linear fashion across the three books, covering all the 1,330 couplets. Hindu teachers have mapped his teachings in the Kural literature to the teachings found in Hindu texts. The term Tirukkural is a compound word made of two individual terms, tiru and kural.Tiru is an honorific Tamil term that corresponds to the universally Indian, Sanskrit term sri meaning "holy, sacred, excellent, honorable, and beautiful." [74] According to Zvelebil, the text does not feature "true and great poetry" throughout the work, except, notably, in the third book, which deals with love and pleasure. Maharishi Vidya Mandir Senior Secondary School, Chetpet. Mental Disturbance Caused by the Lady's Beauty (, Chapter 111. Knowledge in the Council Chamber (, Chapter 76. [212], Kural is an oft-quoted Tamil work. [105][182] According to Albert Schweitzer, "there hardly exists in the literature of the world a collection of maxims in which we find so much of lofty wisdom. 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