Both species have escaped from cultivation in some countries; for example, these species are now naturalized and considered potential invasive aliens in Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand [8, 12]. At days 7 and 14, G. perpensa had egg count reduction percentage ranging from 71 to 100%, signifying that the species has remarkable anthelmintic properties and has long-acting effects on Heterakis gallinarum in the system of the chickens. In Swaziland, G. perpensa is a dominant medicinal plant harvested from wetlands, with traders generating R150–200 (US$20.49–27.32) monthly from selling the rhizomes or roots of the species . Methanol fraction was the most active with an EC Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans of 160 μg/ml against Candida albicans . Used to induce or augment labour and as postnatal medication to expel the afterbirth, administered to animals to expel the placenta and treatment of endometritis South Africa [ 16 , 20 , 22 â 24 , 27 ] The compound pyrogallol 14 inhibited 78.0% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 30 μg/mL concentration; and BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol, and trolox exhibited inhibitions of at least 83.8% against peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration . Van Oudtshoorn, and N. Gericke. Root decoction of G. perpensa is used by Zulu traditional healers in South Africa to stimulate milk production . , the use of G. perpensa roots as herbal medicine will not cause heavy metal toxicity but can be of good use to the users in cases of micronutrient deficiency. Imbola: EC, KZN: Bulb The mammary glands of rats treated with G. perpensa extract showed lobuloalveolar development and 0.8 μg/ml of the extract was also found to stimulate the contraction of the uterus . The extracts of G. perpensa showed moderate to good activity with MIC values ranging from 0.195 to 12.5 mg/mL.  evaluated the in vitro antitumour effects of Z-venusol 5 isolated from the roots of G. perpensa as well as Re-Joovena™, a commercial concoction containing G. perpensa (0.3 mg/ml), Ocotea bullata (Burch.) The reported compounds were identified and characterized by various criteria including UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopy. , 2-methyl-6-(-3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 7 showed weak to moderate antibacterial activity with MIC value of 70 µg/ml for Cryptococcus neoformans, 39 µg/ml for Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus (18 µg/ml), and 9.8 µg/ml for Staphylococcus epidermidis. mixed with rhizomes G. perpensa . Used to improve sexuality, assist with thrush, bad odour that women experience today, which may cause your partner to avoid intiamcy with you. Simelane et al. Results obtained by Nkomo and Kambizi  showed G. perpensa to be effective against Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus flavas, and Aspergillus niger with LC50 values ranging from 0.07 to 3.81. D. von Ahlenfeldt, N. R. Crouch, G. Nichols et al., L. J. McGaw, R. Gehring, L. Katsoulis, and J. N. Eloff, “Is the use of Gunnera perpensa extracts in endometritis related to antibacterial activity?”, M. M. Masafu, C. A. Mbajiorgu, L. E. Nemadodzi, and E. S. Kabine, “A study of natural habitats and uses of medicinal plants in Thulamela and JS Moroka Municipalities, South Africa,”, M. Mwale and P. J. Masika, “Ethno-veterinary control of parasites, management and role of village chickens in rural households of Centane district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa,”, L. V. Buwa and J. It is inferred that the plant extract exerted its activity on milk production and secretion by stimulating lobuloalveolar cell development and the contraction of myoepithelial cells in the alveoli. Gunnera perpensa can therefore be used for treating inflammation related conditions including abdominal pain, swelling of the body, menstrual pains, kidney inflammation and problems, sores, general body pain, and wounds (see Tables 1 and 2). At 200 and 400 mg/kg doses, G. perpensa had worm count reduction of 78 and 74%, respectively . Ndhlala et al. Have you entered our Health of the Nation survey? The water extracts were less active with MIC values of 4 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml against Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively . Gunnera perpensa is a robust, erect, perennial herb which grows up to 1 m tall and always grows in moist habitats, marshy areas, and along river banks. Victor and Keith  evaluated in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of G. perpensa aqueous leaf extract against Heterakis gallinarum.  evaluated antibacterial activities of G. perpensa acetone, crude, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol, and water extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus using the microdilution method with gentamicin and 70% acetone as positive and negative controls, respectively. The information provided does not constitute a diagnosis of your condition.  obtained highest antibacterial activity from the leaf extracts followed by the stems, with the least activity noted for the root extracts. In Chinese herbal medicine, it is used in concert with other herbs to allay the discomfort of sore throats and colds. These documented anthelmintic properties correlate with the ethnomedicinal applications of G. perpensa, which is widely used as remedy for gastrointestinal parasites in Lesotho and South Africa [28, 31, 37]. Khan et al. Generally, bush medicine used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia is made from plant materials, such as bark, leaves and seeds, although animal products may be used as well. Similarly, Muleya et al. Mainstream medicine Mainstream (Western) medicine, see there. Future research should also investigate any side effects that are associated with intake of G. perpensa herbal decoctions and infusions as a monotherapeutic agent or as an ingredient of complex herbal concoctions. CBD Oil is becoming increasingly popular for a variety issues, from pain relief, suppressing nausea, anxiety help to a restful nightâs sleep. Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. Email  evaluated the antioxidant activity of G. perpensa via oxidant generation by N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine- (FMLP-) stimulated neutrophils measured using lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence as described by Allen . Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Decoctions or infusions of the root or rhizome are used for abdominal pain, bladder problems, body cleansing, cancer, colds, earache, endometritis, gastrointestinal parasites, gonorrhoea, heart diseases, hypertension, impotence, infertility, kidney problems, poor appetite, rheumatic pains, scabies, syphilis, and urinary infections [24, 27–34]. The high COX-2 inhibitory activity of G. perpensa makes the species a better product when treating because the COX-2 enzyme is specific in treating inflamed tissue, resulting in less gastric irritation as compared to COX-1 inhibitors and hence decreased risk of gastric ulceration . Ugobho Plant scientifically called Gunnera perpensa known to healing broken bones Ithala Is the upper place in a traditional house where preservation of meat occurs. A major component of traditional medicine is herbal medicine, which is the use of natural plant substances to treat or prevent illness. At a concentration of 5 mg/100 ml, the methanol extract was able to inhibit lipid peroxidation of the whole rat brain homogenate (71.13%) and lipoxygenase (30%) activity. These findings corroborate reports that the leaves of G. perpensa which are used by the rural people of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa, in wound dressing  could be effective against bacterial infections. Z-venusol 5 showed a statistically significant, concentration dependent, apoptotic inhibitory effect on proliferation of MCF-7 cells, with an IC50 of 53.7 μg/ml after 72-hour exposure and the highest concentration (250 μg/ml) used resulted in 69% inhibition . Such research work should be extended to focus on aspects of quality control to ensure safety and the fact that potentially toxic components of G. perpensa in herbal decoctions and infusions are kept below tolerance levels. Umhlonyane: Leaves: Infusion used as a wash for wounds Helichrysum appendiculatum (L.f.) Less.  evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of G. perpensa rhizome on milk production in rats.  revealed that G. perpensa and M. flabellifolia have similar geographical distribution. cunefolia (Eckl. are among some of the popular Gunnera species in the world [6–8]. Simelane et al. Another compound, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 8, showed no activity, while 6-hydroxy-8-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran 9 showed very weak activity for most bacterial species with notable activity against Bacillus cereus and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC values of 75 µg/ml . Kaido et al. Scientific studies on G. perpensa indicate that it has a wide range of pharmacological activities including acetylcholinesterase, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, lactogenic, and uterotonic.  categorized G. perpensa as declining in South Africa using the modified IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1 of threatened species [50–52]. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. ex. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. McGaw et al. Aqueous extract of G. perpensa initiated contractions in the isolated rat uterus, showed direct smooth muscle activity on the uterus, and potentiated the initial response of the uterus to oxytocin. Innately spiritual, the thousands of lineages of African people across thousands of years have all used plant medicines for healing, always with the blessing of their ancestors. The threshold for zero cell deaths occurred for monkey vero cells at 250 μg/ml, and at this concentration it was found that 100% of human fibroblast cells survived . You should consult a medical practitioner or other appropriate health care professional for a physical examination, diagnosis and formal advice. The reported lactogenic properties of G. perpensa corroborate the traditional use of the species to stimulate milk production in KwaZulu Natal province, South Africa . Uqgoko A traditional tray mostly used by Zulu tribe Isithebe A traditional mat used by Zulu tribe. Research by Moore et al. & Zeyh.)  obtained highest sensitivity from the leaf extracts followed by the stems, with the least activity noted for the root extracts. In an earlier study, McGaw et al. Similarly, Simelane et al. It is not necessary for a general cleaning of the womb. Gunnera perpensa exhibited some soya bean 15-LOX inhibitory activity with EC50 value of 81.18 μg/ml . Gunnera tinctoria is widely used as herbal medicine for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitor-urinary, obstetric-gynaecological, and respiratory diseases in Argentina . Root decoctions are used in traditional gynaecological practice as well as traditional veterinary practice to initiate labour, assist delivery or to expel the placenta. Gobo root is traditionally valued for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. The observation that haemoglobin and haematocrit were within the expected range signifies that G. perpensa could influence the replenishment of lost blood thereby curbing anaemia that may be caused by Heterakis gallinarum . The genus was named in honour of the Norwegian bishop and botanist Johan Ernst Gunnerus (1718–1773) .  evaluated the toxicity of G. perpensa rhizome methanol extract using the brine shrimp lethality test. While some of the listed pharmacological activities may not relate directly to the ethnomedicinal uses of G. perpensa, they may provide some insight into its potential therapeutic value and bioactive properties.  and Soltis et al. Health24 and the expert accept no responsibility or liability for any damage or personal harm you may suffer resulting from making use of this content. The widespread usage of G. perpensa in southern Africa calls for conservation strategies and mechanisms for sustainable utilization of the species. 2.  evaluated the possible toxicity of G. perpensa rhizome extracts using the brine shrimp microwell cytotoxicity bioassay .  obtained highest sensitivity from the leaf extracts followed by the stems, with the least activity noted for the root extracts. A. Lawal, T. G. Djarova, C. T. Musabayane, M. Singh, and A. R. Opoku, “Lactogenic activity of rats stimulated by, D. S. Grierson and A. J. Afolayan, “An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of wounds in the Eastern Cape, South Africa,”, M. Sanhokwe, J. Mupangwa, P. J. Masika, V. Maphosa, and V. Muchenje, “Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats,”, A. P. Dold and M. L. Cocks, “Traditional veterinary medicine in the Alice district of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,”, R. B. Bhat, “Medicinal plants and traditional practices of Xhosa people in the Transkei region of Eastern Cape, South Africa,”.  evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts of G. perpensa rhizome using the abdominal constriction, hotplate, formalin, hyperalgesia, and fresh egg albumin-induced inflammation. Urton, and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. Ndhlala et al. Khan et al. Abanye bayakunyanya abanye bayakuthanda. According to Dold and Cocks , G. perpensa is heavily traded in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa, characterized by a high price on the medicinal (muthi) market with 1 kg fetching R47.80 (US$4.54) with 115.6 kilogrammes as mean quantity traded per trader per annum.  quantified antifungal activity of crude extracts of stems, roots, and leaves of G. perpensa as well as 2-methyl-6-(-3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 7, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 8, and 6-hydroxy-8-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran 9 against Candida albicans using amphotericin B as control. Indlebeyemvu: Leaves: Tea from dried leaves applied to circumcision wounds H. aureonitens Sch.Bip. The phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of G. perpensa rhizomes carried out by Simelane et al. J. J. M. van der Merwe, Rhoicissus tridentata subsp. It is highly esteemed as a blood detoxifier, a diuretic, and a topical remedy for maladies of the skin, including psoriasis and acne. It is mainly used as herbal medicine for diarrhoea, menorrhagia, stomach aches, skin infections, inflammations, and rashes. The results revealed that all the extracts were nonmutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 for the assay with and without S9 metabolic activation. The compound, p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde 6, also diminished the reactive oxygen species level elevated in the LPS-activated macrophages . Oops! Decoction prepared from it is also used to remove excess fluid from the body and to â¦  evaluated the in vitro antiproliferative activity of pyrogallol 14 towards human tumour cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, and erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Like most medicinal plants in southern Africa, G. perpensa is collected from the wild. Previous researchers argued that the antioxidant properties of G. perpensa are probably due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolics  as these compounds, for example, flavonoids, are known to have free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anticancer, and antiviral activities . Gunnera perpensa methanol extract also contained reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, 3.8 ρm/g), total phenol (248.45 mg/g), and traces of sulfhydryl groups (SH). 2016, Article ID 1720123, 14 pages, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1720123, 1Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. In traditional medicines a decoction of it is used to remove excess fluid from the body or excess blood and the placenta in humans and cattle (Ngwenya et al. Brookes and Smith  investigated whether G. perpensa exhibited any significant toxic effects on monkey vero cells and human fibroblasts. Results obtained by Buwa and Van Staden  revealed that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of G. perpensa had the highest inhibitory activity against all the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC values ranging from 0.78 to 1.56 mg/ml. Table 2 shows how G. perpensa is used alone in monotherapeutic applications. Alfred Maroyi, "From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: Systematic Review of Gunnera perpensa L.", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. ex. The low impact use of peeled twigs as chewing sticks accounted for the other 12 % of sticks used and for the remaining 20 species (Ake Assi, 1988b). Simelane et al. By contrast, Z-venusol 5 did not trigger the direct contractile response but induced the state of continuous contractility once the organ bath was flushed . Elephantorrhiza elephantina. The authors observed mild splenic siderosis and renal inflammation in the subacute test and therefore G. perpensa is potentially toxic when used consecutively for a long period. The large, velvety compound leaves and grey-brown bark that becomes rough with age are also attractive features of this tree. The water extracts of G. perpensa showed percentage inhibition of over 70% for both COX-1 and COX-2, showing higher inhibitory activity in the COX-2 bioassay when compared to the COX-1 bioassay, suggesting that this extract could be selective towards the COX-2 enzyme. We would like to show you a description here but the site wonât allow us. Some of the natural plants used for health purposes include Aloe ferox (intelezi) which is used to wash, cleanse and protect the body, Artemisia afra (umhlonyane) which is used to treat common colds, Knowltonia vesicatora (umvuthuza) used to treat cold and toothache, Gunnera perpensa (ugobho) used in childbirth and to treat wounds.  investigated the mutagenic activity of aqueous rhizome extract of G. perpensa using the Salmonella microsome assay based on the plate-incorporation procedure with Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98, with and without metabolic activation. © 2020 (1.1.20344.4) 24.com. D. Raimondo, L. von Staden, W. Foden et al.. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), J. E. Victor and M. Keith, “The orange list: a safety net for biodiversity in South Africa,”, L. von Staden, D. Raimondo, and W. Foden, “Approach to red list assessments,” in, L. Seleteng Kose, A. Moteetee, and S. Van Vuuren, “Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho,”, M. B. C. Simelane, O. and G. tinctoria (Molina) Mirb. River pumpkin (ugobho) is one of the worldâs oldest plant species and it grows in most of South Africaâs provinces. Willd. B. Cunningham, T. L. Kaido, D. J. H. Veale, I. Havlik, and D. B. K. Rama, “Preliminary screening of plants used in South Africa as traditional herbal remedies during pregnancy and labour,”. Similarly, Ndhlala et al. Although G. perpensa is widespread throughout its distributional range, its population is declining due to overexploitation of its rhizomes and roots which are sold in the medicinal (muthi) markets throughout South Africa. At a dosage of 29 mg/mL, G. perpensa had 60% worm motility inhibition at 12-hour interval and worm mortality index of 60% showing that the species has moderate anthelmintic properties.  also evaluated the antioxidant activity of G. perpensa rhizome and found methanol extracts to exhibit strong scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) but showed poor (<50%) radical scavenging of nitric oxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals. Khan et al. and M.C.M.) The questionnaire was administered by two ofthe authors (C.L.M.  revealed the presence of steroids, saponins, and glycosides in addition to secondary compounds shown in Figure 1. Steenkamp et al. Future research should focus on the mechanisms of action of the isolated compounds, their efficacy, toxicity, and clinical relevance. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Future research should combine the pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and clinical applications in assessing the efficacy of G. perpensa compounds and/or their extracts. The fluorescein isothiocyanate Annexin V and the lactate dehydrogenase activity assays suggested that Z-venusol 5 induced apoptotic cell death in the breast cancer cells. It is a substance produced by bees that is commonly used to provide protection from viruses, bacteria and fungi. Gunnera perpensa is widely known for its high medicinal importance in several traditional medicine systems in southern Africa which resulted in the creation of some formulas or prescriptions (Table 1). New study looks at links between severity of Covid-19 and antibodies, Heart failure risk significantly increased by chips and fizzy drinks, Global trial finds life-saving drug for older people suffering from acute myeloid leukaemia, Booze ban not all bad – alcohol does your immune system no favours, Back to stalemate between SAA pilots and rescue practitioners, New lockdown regulations a chicken or egg dilemma for SA tourism industry, Losses and gains of 2020: 21 authors reflect, Karyn Maughan | Zondo 'bent over backwards' for Zuma - and it's coming back to haunt him, Jabulani Sikhakhane | Framework for civil service reforms thin on depoliticisation details. The leaves, rhizomes, roots, and stems of G. perpensa are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties and used to treat or manage various human and animal diseases and ailments throughout the distributional range of the species (Tables 1 and 2). Izigqabo lezi zenhlanhla nezothando zisebenza ngakho ukuphalaza lokhu. Genus Gunnera includes 30–40 herbaceous species, mostly distributed in the southern hemisphere . Something went wrong, please try again later. Van Staden, “Antibacterial, anthelmintic and anti-amoebic activity in South African medicinal plants,”, V. Steenkamp, E. Mathivha, M. C. Gouws, and C. E. J. van Rensburg, “Studies on antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of wound healing remedies from South Africa,”, M. Nkomo, B. N. Nkeh-Chungag, L. Kambizi, E. J. Ndebia, and J. E. Iputo, “Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of gunnera perpensa (gunneraceae),”, L. J. Mathibe, J. Botha, and S. Naidoo, “Z-venusol, from, S. B. Ozturk Sarikaya, “Acethylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and antioxidant properties of pyrogallol,”. C. Long, “Swaziland's flora: siSwati names and uses,” Swaziland National Trust Commission, Mbambane, 2005, A. Moteetee and B.-E. Van Wyk, “The medical ethnobotany of lesotho: a review,”, A. P. Dold and M. L. Cocks, “The trade in medicinal plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,”, A. Raimondo et al. The low impact use of peeled twigs as chewing sticks accounted for the other 12 % of sticks used and â¦ In addition to this, pyrogallol 14 was effective of all the scavenging and reducing power results . Hyacinthaceae: Drimia depressa (Baker) Jessop: Moretella: FS: Whole plant: The whole plant is boiled and taken internally as an anthelmintic. To continue using baking soda to help you get pregnant, suck the liquid with a sterilized syringe. These documented antifungal properties of G. perpensa justify its use as herbal medicine against microbial infections. These findings suggest that Z-venusol 5 is cytotoxic to human breast tumour cells in vitro, and cell death follows an apoptotic pathway. and a consensus ofviews was recorded.  evaluated anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde 6 isolated from Gastrodia elata Blume using the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in male ICR mice. Similarly, Ozturk Sarikaya  studied different in vitro antioxidant assays such as cupric ion Cu2+ reducing power, Fe3+ reducing power, total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, ABTS radical scavenging, DMPD radical scavenging, DPPH scavenging, Fe2+ chelating, scavenging, and H2O2 scavenging activities of the compound pyrogallol 14. Aqueous, ethanolic, and ethyl acetate extracts of G. perpensa roots were screened for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus by Buwa and Van Staden . The compound, p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde 6, suppressed the production of nitric oxide and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase COX-2 in the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated RAW264.7 macrophages . The use of these water extracts and 0.78 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively [ 62 ],! Challenge in Africa highest sensitivity from the leaf extracts followed by the stems, with least. Activities supporting its traditional use for pain management which can be used to support uterine health according to and... Results [ 68 ] chemical and bioactive properties been recorded in Africa good... Applied to circumcision wounds ( L.f. ) Less valued for its antibacterial anti-inflammatory... Scott, G. perpensa significantly produced more milk than controls the stems, the! Stems, with the least activity noted for the root extracts mg/mL against Staphylococcus,. Information provided does not constitute a diagnosis of your condition Xhosa as an of. Isothiocyanate Annexin V and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate extract against Heterakis gallinarum test both! From 0.195 to 12.5 mg/mL diseases and ailments to sleep, to aid in generating spiritual dreams potent... Pregnant women in South Africa to stimulate milk production [ 35 ] contains root powder can! Microbial infections species in the population size of the species 3.13 and 0.78 mg/mL μg/ml 8. Microbial infections and Cryptococcus neoformans of 160 μg/ml against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans 160... A morning ( from 08h30 to l3hOO ) every fortnight during 1980, hormonal. Cyclooxygenase ( what is ugobho used for and COX-2 ) inhibitory bioassays decoction used by Zulu tribe tonic. Pull themselves together review is also aimed at assessing whether there is no conflict of interests regarding publication... Authors for a hardened uterus perpensa on the mechanisms of action of the species Gunnera species in world. 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